One of the first purchasers of land from Penn was Lancelot Fallowfield. In 1718, a preacher named John Salkield brought a tract of land from Fallowfield. Salkield decided to call his land Fallowfield, in honor of its former landowner.
East Fallowfield Township grew slowly, but increases in population were steady. In 1851, the Ercildoun Academy was founded as a school for boys. In 1854, the school began functioning as a girls seminary, and became noteworthy as one of Chester County's institutions of higher learning.
Throughout the 1800's, East Fallowfield Township continued to develop along the lines of rural agricultural area. Since Pennsylvania was a free state bordering on the slave state of Maryland, the southern Pennsylvania counties were an initial stop for slaves seeking freedom. When the Fugitive Slave Law was passed in 1850, harboring slaves became dangerous, but the "Underground Railroad" remained active in the area. Ercildoun was a link in the Underground Railroad, and it residents were quite involved in the abolition cause.
Today, East Fallowfield Township exists as a semi-rural municipality, highlighted by development clusters. The northern sections of the Township show considerable amounts of residential development, while the majority of the southern properties are devoted to livestock farms and horse stables.
There are a number of historical sites in the Township: The Speakman Bridge recognized by the Pennsylvania Register of Historical Sites, was built in 1881, at a cost of $1,918. The Fallowfield Octagonal House which is listed on the State and National Register of Historical Sites, in a unique, eight sided structure built in 1856. Other areas of interest include the Friends Meeting House and the Burying Ground in Ercildoun.